Parallel Req/Rep via Pub/Sub - zeromq

I have multiple servers, at any point, one and only one will be the leader whcih can respond to a request, all others just drop the request. The issue is that the client does not know which server is the leader.
I have tried using a pub socket on the client for the parallel request out, however I can't work out the right semantics for the response. In terms of how to get the server to respond to that specific client.
A hacky solution which I have tried is to have a sub socket on the client to pub sockets on all the servers, with the leader responding by publishing a message with a filter such that it only goes to the client.
However I am unable to receive any responses this way, the server believes that it sent the message and the client believes it subscribed to "" but then doesn't receive anything...
So I am wondering whether there is a more proper way of doing this? I have thought that potentially a dealer/router with sending to a specific client would work, however I am unsure how to do that.
Essentially I am trying to do a standard Req/Rep however doing the req in parallel to all the nodes, rather than round robin.
UPDATE: By sending the routing id of the dealer in the pub request, making the remote call idempotent (just returning pre-computed results on repeated attempts), and then sending the result back via a router, with message filtering on the receiving side, it now works.

Q : " is (there) a more proper way of doing this? "
Start to apply the Maslow's Hammer rule:
“When the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem begins to resemble a nail.”
In other words, do not try use (one) hammer for solving every problem. PUB/SUB-archetype was designed to serve those-and-only-those multi-party Formal-Communications-Pattern archetypes, where many SUB-scribe to .recv() some PUB-lisher(s) .send()-broadcast messages, but nothing other.
Similarly, REQ/REP-archetype was defined and implemented so as to serve one-and-only-one multi-party distributed Formal-Communications-Pattern ( and will obviously not meet any use-case, which has any single other or even a slightly different requirement ).
Users often require some special, non-trivial features, that obviously were not a part of the said trivial Formal-Communications-Pattern archetype primitives ( those ready-made blocks, made available in the ZeroMQ toolbox ).
It is architecs' / designers' role to define, analyse and implement any more complex user-specific distributed-behaviour definition ( a protocol ) and to implement it, most often using a layered combination of the ready-made ZeroMQ primitives.
If in doubts, take a sheet of paper and pencil, draw a small crowd of kids on playground and sketch their "shouts", their "listening", their "silence", "waiting" and "doubts", their many or few "replies", their "voting" and "anger" of not being voted for by friends, their fight for a place on the Sun and their "persistence" not to let others take theirs turn and let 'em sit on the "swing" after releasing the so far pleasurable swinging oneselves.
All this is the part of finding the right mix of ( protocol-orchestrated ) levels of control and levels of freedom to act.
There we get the new, distributed-behaviour, tailor-made for your specific use-case.
Probability to find a ready-made primitive tool to match and fulfill any user-specific use case is limitlessly close to Zero ( sure, unless one's own, user-specific use-case requirements match all those of the primitive archetype, but that is not a user-specific use-case, but a re-use of an already implemented archetype for the very same situation, that was foreseen by the ZeroMQ fathers, wasn't it? )
Again, welcome to the art of Zen-of-Zero.
Maylike to readthis and this and this


What would be the right ZMQ Pattern?

I am trying to build a ZeroMQ pattern where,
There can be many clients connecting to a single server endpoint
Server will distribute incoming client tasks to available workers (will be mapped to the number of cores on the server)
These tasks are long running (in hours) and need to perform a lot of local I/O
During each task execution (iteration) there will be data/messages (potentially in order of [GB]s) sent back and forth between the client and the server worker
Client and server workers need to know if there are failures/errors on the peer side, so that they can recover (retry) or shutdown gracefully and try later
Based on the above, I presume that the ROUTER/DEALER pattern would be useful. PUB/SUB is discarded as I need to know if the peer fails.
I tried using various combinations of the ROUTER/DEALER pattern but I am unable to ensure that multiple messages from a client reach the same worker within an iteration. I understand that I need to implement a broker/forwarder/device that routes the incoming messages to the right recipient/handler/worker. But I am unable to map the frontend and backend sockets in the broker. I am looking at MajorDomo pattern, but I guess there has to be a simpler broker model that could just route the messages to the assigned worker. (not really get into services)
I am looking for some examples, if there are any or any guidance on what I may be missing. I am trying to build this in Golang.
Q : "What would be the right ZMQ Pattern?"
Based on the complex composition of all the requirements posted under items 1 - 5, I dare to say, The Right would be NOT to use a single one of the standard, built-in, ZeroMQ trivial primitive Communication Archetype Patterns, but to rather create a multi-layered application-specific composition of a ( M + N + 1 hot-standby robust-enough?) (self-resilient?) Signalling-Messaging infrastructure, that covers all your current ( and possibly extensible for any future one ) application-level requirements, like depicted here for a way simpler distributed-computing use-case, where but a trivial remote-SigKILL was implemented.
Yes, the best would be to create ( and maintain ) your own formalised signalling, that the application level can handle and interact across -- like the heart-beating for detecting dead-worker(s) + permitting to re-instate such failed jobs right on-detected failures (most probably re-located and/or re-scheduled to take place & respective resources not statically pre-mapped, but where physically most feasible at the re-instating moment of time - so even more telemetry signalling will help you decide about the re-instating of the such failed micro-jobs).
ZeroMQ is a fabulous framework right for such complex signalling and messaging hierarchies, so your System Architect's imagination is the only ceiling in this concept.
ZeroMQ will take the rest and do all the hard work nice and easily.

How get a data without polling?

This is more of a theorical question.
Well, imagine that I have two programas that work simultaneously, the main one only do something when he receives a flag marked with true from a secondary program. So, this main program has a function that will keep asking to the secondary for the value of the flag, and when it gets true, it will do something.
What I learned at college is that the polling is the simplest way of doing that. But when I started working as an developer, coworkers told me that this method generate some overhead or it's waste of computation, by asking every certain amount of time for a value.
I tried to come up with some ideas for doing this in a different way, searched on the internet for something like this, but didn't found a useful way about how to do this.
I read about interruptions and passive ways that can cause the main program to get that data only if was informed by the secondary program. But how this happen? The main program will need a function to check for interruption right? So it will not end the same way as before?
What could I do differently?
There is no magic...
no program will guess when it has new information to be read, what you can do is decide between two approaches,
A -> asks -> B
A <- is informed <- B
whenever use each? it depends in many other factors like:
1- how fast you need the data be delivered from the moment it is generated? as far as possible? or keep a while and acumulate
2- how fast the data is generated?
3- how many simoultaneuos clients are requesting data at same server
4- what type of data you deal with? persistent? fast-changing?
If you are building something like a stocks analyzer where you need to ask the price of stocks everysecond (and it will change also everysecond) the approach you mentioned may be the best
if you are writing a chat based app like whatsapp where you need to check if there is some new message to the client and most of time wont... publish subscribe may be the best
but all of this is a very superficial look into a high impact architecture decision, it is not possible to get the best by just looking one factor
what i want to show is that
coworkers told me that this method generate some overhead or it's
waste of computation
it is not a right statement, it may be in some particular scenario but overhead will always exist in distributed systems
The typical way to prevent polling is by using the Publish/Subscribe pattern.
Your client program will subscribe to the server program and when an event occurs, the server program will publish to all its subscribers for them to handle however they need to.
If you flip the order of the requests you end up with something more similar to a standard web API. Your main program (left in your example) would be a server listening for requests. The secondary program would be a client hitting an endpoint on the server to trigger an event.
There's many ways to accomplish this in every language and it doesn't have to be tied to tcp/ip requests.
I'll add a few links for you shortly.
Well, in most of languages you won't implement such a low level. But theorically speaking, there are different waiting strategies, you are talking about active waiting. Doing this you can easily eat all your memory.
Most of languages implements libraries to allow you to start a process as a service which is at passive waiting and it is triggered when a request comes.

How to get data a ZMQ_PUB service?

Can I publisher service receive data from an external source and send them to the subscribers?
In the wuserver.cpp example, the data are generated from the same script.
Can I write a ZMQ_PUBLISHER entity, which receives data from external data source / application ... ?
In this affirmation:
There is one more important thing to know about PUB-SUB sockets: you do not know precisely when a subscriber starts to get messages. Even if you start a subscriber, wait a while, and then start the publisher, the subscriber will always miss the first messages that the publisher sends. This is because as the subscriber connects to the publisher (something that takes a small but non-zero time), the publisher may already be sending messages out.
Does this mean, that a PUB-SUB ZeroMQ pattern is performed to a best effort - UDP style?
Q1: Can I write a ZMQ_PUBLISHER entity, which receives data from external data source/application?
A1: Oh sure, this is why ZeroMQ is so helping us in designing smart distributed-systems. Just imagine the PUB-side process to also have other { .bind() | .connect() }-calls, so as to establish such other links to data-feeder(s), and you are done to operate the wished to have scheme. In distributed-systems this gives you a new freedom to smart integrate heterogeneous systems to talk to each other in a very efficient way.
Q2:Does this mean, that a PUB-SUB ZeroMQ pattern is performed to a best effort - UDP style?
A2: No, it has another meaning. The newly declared subscriber entities at some uncertain moment start to negotiate their respective subscription-topic filtering and such a ( distributed ) process takes some a-priori unknown time. Unless until the new / changed topic-filter policy was established, there is nothing to go into the SUB-side exgress interface to meet a .recv()-call, so no one can indeed tell, when that will get happened, can he?
On a higher level, there is another well known dichotomy of ZeroMQ -- Zero-Warranty Principle -- expect to either get delivered a complete message or none at all, which prevents the framework users from a need to handle any kind of damaged / inconsistent message-payloads. Either OK, or None. That's a great warranty. The more for distributed-systems.

ZMQ pattern for requests without replies

I am using ZMQ to allow clients to connect to a server and send commands to it. The commands come in at high frequency, and do not need any reply. I am considering using a REQ/REP socket, but it feels wasteful to send empty replies. I do not wish to use PUB/SUB or PUSH/PULL because I want the clients to initiate the connection. Is there a more suitable pattern than REQ/REP to use here?
(cit.:) because I want the clients to initiate the connection. ( ? )
One can always let clients to initiate the connection, so using PUSH/PULL Scalable Formal Communication Pattern seems very on target, even with reverse .bind()/.connect() calls, or have you meant something else?
If remaining negative about the PUSH/PULL ( as observed so far ) for some other reason, one may escape from the strict hard-wired steplocking ( and also from it's risk of falling into unsalvageable deadlocks, associated per-se with it ) of the REQ/REP-- firstby an extended archetype XREQ/XREP ( see API documentation for implementation details ) or( if using API 4.2+ )by unlocking the REQ-hardwired FSA duties via .setsockopt( ZMQ_REQ_RELAXED, 1 ), given the fact noted above, that REP answers will never be sent from the server-side / processed on the REQ-side client(s). In case of going this way, be cautious as ZMQ_REQ_CORRELATE may get set to 1, where the messages will happen to become multi-frame(d), as the REQ-id# will get loaded into the newly injected "service"-frame, before the REQ's client-payload gets onto wire. This may confuse the server-part of the message-receiving / processing code.
For more couragefull designers, may use PAIR/PAIR Formal Pattern archetype, as it does not indoctrinate any strict formal behaviour, but read carefully the API specs.

Laravel Raffle Project. Is a Queue the best way to achieve this?

I'm creating a raffle site as a small side project. It will handle multiple raffles each with an end time. At the end of each raffle a single winner is chosen.
Are Laravel Jobs the best way to go with this? Do I just create a single forever-repeating job to check if any raffles have ended and need a winner?
If not, what would be the best way to go?
I don't think that forever-repeating scripts are generally a good idea.
I just create a single forever-repeating job
This is almost never a good idea. It has its applications in legacy code bases but websockets and events are best considered for this job. Also, you have the benefit of using a really good framework like Laravel, so take advantage of it
If you want people to be notified in real time in the browser.
If you have all your users subscribe to a websocket channel when they load the page, you can easily send a message to a websocket server to all subscribed clients (ie browsers) to let them know who the winner is.
Then, in your client side code (Javascript), you can parse that message to determine who the winner is and render a pop up that let's the user know.
If you don't mind a bit of a delay, most definitely use events for this.
At the end of every action that might potentially end a raffle (ie, a name is chosen at random by a computer - function chooseName()). Fire an event that notifies all participants in the raffle.
NB: I've listed the above two as separate issues, but actually, the could be used together. For example, in the event that a name is chosen at random, determine if the raffle is over and notify clients via a websocket connection.
Why I wouldn't use delayed Jobs
The crux of the reason - maintainability
Imagine a scenario where something extends the time of your raffle by a week. This could've happened because a raffle was cheated on or whatever (can't really think of all the use cases in that area).
Now, your job has a set delay in place - is it really a good programming principle to have to change two things when only one scenario changed? Nope. Having something like an event in place - onRaffleEnd - explicitly looks for the occurrence of an event. Laravel doesn't care when that event happens.
Using delayed Jobs can work - it's just not a good programming use case in your scenario and limits what you're able to do in the longer run. It will force you to make more considerations when unforeseen circumstances come along as well as when you want to change things. This also decentralizes the logic related to your raffle. Whilst decoupling code is good practice, having logic sit in completely different places makes maintenance a nightmare.